For example, Runescape does not allow bots. I want to ask a question to figure out the extent of this, as I have an idea for a "bot" that falls within the rules on the rules page. Would a question asking for clarification about if something would be rule breaking be allowed?
It depends on the question.
Asking for general clarifications on server/online rules or clauses from a game's Terms of Service (TOS) etc is generally fine. We've had those sorts of questions before and they are generally well received.
Asking if a particular technique would get you into trouble/banned/suspended etc is only really answerable by the Game Developer/Support team - it's their game and their TOS to enforce as they see fit, even if gamers might think the technique is 'ok' from a gameplay perspective.