The badge Curious involves getting a 5-day positive question streak. I have done that.
Here's a screenshot.
You can see I've completed the badge. Its meter is filled. What happened?
Check the little popup when you click the badge progress, does it look like this?
The Curious badge has two components: 5 upvoted questions asked over 5 separate days, and maintaining a positive question record. That little 'x' turns into a tick once you have met that requirement:
The formula used to calculate a positive question record is as follows:
(total questions - negative questions - closed - deleted)/total questions ≥ 0.5
I can't see that popup on your profile, but doing the math manually, it doesn't seem like you've met the requirement, plugging your stats in to the formula I get:
(12 - 2 - 3 - 2)/12 = 5/12 = 0.41
Note that negatively voted, closed and deleted questions do count 3 times, so one or two poorly received questions can tip the scale. Also note that the actual vote score of your questions doesn't matter. If you have a question with 20 upvotes, that still only counts as 1 positive question, not 20.
So to earn Curious, you'll have to put in the hard work to raise your positive question record - either by revisiting closed questions and attempting to make them more acceptable (clarify, reduce the scope etc), or by asking new, clear, well-received questions.